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Fatima. Historical dates Category: History Garabandal. Historical dates

History. Time
Bad infinity
According to Fr. Sergei Bulgakov

Becoming, changeability, «bad infinity»

One should note that Scripture uses the notion of eternity in relation to temporality (and time) in two senses: first to express the divine ground of creation, the ontological base of temporality, which the latter covers and which is accessible only through it; and, second, to express the infinity of time. These are two different aspects, which can be distinguished but should not be confused. For example, the expression "eternal life" should be distinguished from (in fact, is opposite to) the expressions "eternal fire" or "eternal torment." The first aspect corresponds to immobility and depth, the second to becoming, changeability, "bad infinity," that is, to precisely what is not characteristic of eternity. Cf. The Lamb of God: Eternity and Time.

Sergius Bulgakov
The Bride of the Lamb
The Creation of the World Out of Nothing

History is not a bad infinity

History takes place within the limits of creation. It belongs to "this age," which is on the threshold of "the life of the future age".

Hisotry is a certain state of becoming being that is included in being in a definite way: an additional creation of the world within itself, as it were.

First of all, history is not a bad infinity, a negative eternity, without begining or end. One cannot apply to history the antinomy of time and eternity that holds for all of creation in its relation to God. History takes place within the limits of creation. It belongs to "this age," which is on the threshold of "the life of the future age". History has a beginning and an end. Chasms bound it on both sides: The beginning is bounded by the creation of man; the end is bounded by the beginning of the new time and the future age. In this sense, hisotry is a certain state of becoming being that is included in being in a definite way: an additional creation of the world within itself, as it were.

The question may even arise whether history exists for Christianity at all, or whether it is of indefinite duration, an empty time in which there is nothing to be accomplished, “the last time”.

There is still a history within the limits of the “last times”; and it is not evil infinity, perpetuating the mixture of good and evil, as in the present concepts of modern paganism, but it also has an inner end, like a transcensus to the highest state, performed by the power of God.

The question may even arise whether history exists for Christianity at all, or whether it is of indefinite duration, an empty time in which there is nothing to be accomplished, “the last time”. Such a definition here means that, since the incarnation of God has taken place, then on the part of the Divine everything is already completed; however, for Christian humanity these last times also constitute their own eon, with its accomplishments and its revelations. Here, in symbolic images (partly characteristic of the apocalyptic in general), the struggle of two principles is shown, which make up the tragedy of history, with successive victories and defeats; it speaks not only of the triumph of the beast with his false prophet, but also of the appearance of the Thousand Year Kingdom of Christ on Earth. It is filled with essential features in other places of the New Testament: preaching the gospel to all languages (Matt. 24, 2) in connection with other events, the conversion of Israel as “life from the dead” (Rom. 11), the appearance of the "enemy," they all represent historical eras. The future in its essence is announced by the Holy Spirit (Jhn 16:13), but the particulars remain unknown, for it is the work of human creativity. Therefore, there is still a history within the limits of the “last times”; and it is not evil infinity, perpetuating the mixture of good and evil, as in the present concepts of modern paganism, but it also has an inner end, like a transcensus to the highest state, performed by the power of God. It itself is no longer a historical event, for it is transcendental to history, does not occur in historical time (“and the angel swore that there should be time no longer” Rev 10:6). The story with its apocalypse, although internally based on eschatology, cannot be outwardly oriented, because the end lies not in history, but behind history, outside its horizon, beyond its line. This mix of perspectives is often abused, fleeing the historical panic by escaping to eschatology.

Сергий Булгаков
Душа социализма

Completeness of creation

The divine fullness is therefore combined not with an infinity that is powerless to exhaust itself and in this sense is genuinely bad, but with a determinate completeness.

Every atom of being, however small it might be, potentially contains its entire actual infinity, which is manifested not only in the static profile of its being but also in its dynamic, energetic realization.

Such a positive, finite infinitude is, in general, revealed to us through the creation of the world, in which the divine all is implanted. But this all is realized in a definite, limited period of time ("the six days of creation"), and is implanted in definite, limited forms, or modes, of being. Otherwise, the world could not have been fully created, fully finished. And the divine sabbath could not have come, just as it would not have been said: "Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made" (Gen. 2:1-2). The divine fullness is therefore combined not with an infinity that is powerless to exhaust itself and in this sense is genuinely bad, but with a determinate completeness, which is nevertheless characterized by an inexhaustible depth of eternity, by an eternal life realized in creaturely temporality. By virtue of this combination, every atom of being, however small it might be, potentially contains its entire actual infinity, which is manifested not only in the static profile of its being but also in its dynamic, energetic realization.

Sergius Bulgakov
The Bride of the Lamb
5 The Eternity and Temporality of Man

History has a bounds and in particular necessarily presupposes both a beginning and an end. It is connected with "times and seasons," having their foundation in the spiritual organization of humanity. History represents an eon, a certain completion that is disclosed in time sequentially.

Objective time contains sufficient foundation for the order of generations and the succession of historical nations, by which the skeleton of history is determined. If history in general is the birth of humanity, then it is realized with an internally defined plan and consistency. History is connected with "times and seasons," having their foundation in the spiritual organization of humanity. Therefore it is not "bad infinity" naturally inherent in formal time, but has a bounds and in particular necessarily presupposes both a beginning and an end, which abstract time does not do at all. … concrete time, which history is, has both beginning and end; in other words, it represents an eon, a certain completion that is disclosed in time sequentially.

Pentecost has begun but it has not been completed. Pentecost of our aeon is nor a bad infinity, it strives to accomplish itself to the end. Pentecost leads to the eschatological culmination and to a new aeon.

… this continuing Pentecost of our aeon is nor a bad infinity, which has neither completion nor fullness. On the contrary, it strives to accomplish itself to the end, to the point where «God will be all in all». And in this sense the Pentecost leads to the eschatological culmination and to a new aeon; it merges with the parousia. At the same time, the life of grace in the Holy Spirit leads us beyond the limits of earthly, empirical life, insofar as it unites us with the world on the other side, with the kingdom of saints and angels, with the glorified church.

Sergius Bulgakov
The Comforter
V. The Gifts of the Pentecost

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